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The Creative Personality
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Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi
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3 W! v8 `! Z1 v# A【1】我花了30年的时间研究富有创意的人是如何生活和工作的。* e$ I* R. n+ J9 g$ l: M  W
I *have devoted花了 30 years of research to how creative people live and work.
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5 k' Q/ l* H, Z如果要用一个词来概括他们的性格与常人的差别所在,那就是复杂( n. e, X- L' m
If I had to express in one word what makes their personalities different from others, it's complexity.5 m; Q6 `) ~3 b0 }- N

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They contain contradictory extremes; instead of being an "individual", each of them is a "multitude"复合体. 0 i* J! s) _/ _/ r! `( @2 B$ k2 V

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Here are some traits特征 that are often found in creative people.

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These traits *are integrated with组合 each other *in a dialectical manner以辩证的方式.

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1. Creative people have a great deal of physical energy, but they are also often quiet and at rest.
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他们可以注意力高度集中地工作很长时间,而始终神采奕奕、兴致勃勃。+ x/ v9 w$ k* n& L
They can work long hours with great concentration while remaining fresh and enthusiastic all the time.
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/ w* R- m8 K; I6 ^5 ~2 E这并不是说富有创意的人超级亢奋。9 b: K( k' M/ y1 y
This does not mean that creative people are always active.
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+ K! @' @6 }- Z! J) f事实上,他们经常休息,睡得也很多。
( r4 [- ~5 [( R9 a% r; J& oIn fact, they rest often and sleep a lot.
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重要的是,他们知道如何掌控自己的精力,而人的精力并不是由日历、时钟或外在的日程安排来控制的。% `' p5 r7 @8 }1 Y0 T. B
The important thing is that they know how to control their energy, which is not ruled by the calendar, the clock or an external schedule.
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有必要时,他们就能像激光一样专注;没必要时,富有创意的人就会立刻开始充电。/ G: Z  E+ F* a4 z, }1 X& b% d
When necessary, they can focus it like a laser beam; when not, creative types immediately recharge their batteries. . Y& b6 R1 z) S# N- w! c
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& X  c: `' B% ?& j! S  L; ^! T/ ~这不是得自遗传基因的生物节奏;而是为达到目标而通过反复尝试掌握的一种策略。
6 x( J# @3 _1 s- h9 x, r: yThis is not a biorhythm inherited with their genes; it was learned by trial and error as a strategy for achieving their goals. % Q$ P" T' g  j- f
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2. Creative people tend to be smart yet naive at the same time. - i1 W5 r, u1 @! J
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. L- `5 k0 [* _" Q7 E6 m5 z% T换句话说,这个矛盾体就是智慧和幼稚这两个极端。
3 `  u$ g8 T3 x) i) g  T" eAnother way of expressing this dialectic is the contrasting poles of wisdom and childishness. ; m# @' l" R% g8 B* t2 m3 E3 g  h
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9 H% n1 H: H! R7 O/ m! NAs Howard Gardner reveals in his study of the major creative geniuses of the 20th century, a certain immaturity, both emotional and mental, can go hand in hand with deepest insights. 7 l5 ]' U( j3 J6 r1 l

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Earlier studies on superior mental abilities show that children with very high IQs do well in life, but after a certain point, IQ does not seem to be correlated any longer with superior performance in real life.
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1 f& Q/ m% R7 y& D6 `0 K; Z% HLater studies suggest that it might be difficult to do creative work with a lower IQ, but an IQ beyond 120 does not necessarily imply higher creativity. 1 w( w* z3 S; l: t3 g$ T4 N) l

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Furthermore, creative people seem able to use well two opposite ways of thinking: the convergent and the divergent. 0 l/ g$ M! C& J( h9 [# B

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趋同思维由智商测试来衡量,涉及的是解决定义清楚、有唯一正确答案的理性问题。; j" q2 L# g0 W9 ?
Convergent thinking is measured by IQ tests, and it involves solving well-defined, rational problems that have one correct answer. / e6 L' W2 c# F% D/ j' M

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% `" W$ a4 N' S7 b9 v, C& D$ h! hDivergent thinking leads to no agreed-upon solution.
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它涉及的是产生大量想法的能力;灵活性,或者说是从一个角度转换到另一个角度的能力;以及能独辟蹊径地产生非凡联想的能力。. i# w* V/ [0 k' L. I: s
It involves the ability to generate a great quantity of ideas; flexibility, or the ability to switch from one perspective to another; and originality in picking unusual associations of ideas. ( \/ V* Q7 t1 B& a# O' _0 \
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7 q, w+ m  N1 B2 ^但求异思维本身是没有多大用处的,除非有能力判断一个想法是好是坏,要做到这一点,我们必须依赖于趋同思维。! v) |0 W' ^4 r. e4 y: \6 {
Yet divergent thinking is not much use without the ability to tell a good idea from a bad one, and for this, we must rely on convergent thinking.
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3. Creative people alternate between imagination and a deeply-rooted sense of reality. ' j# P) U2 m/ d8 l* J3 o" n' A0 ~

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" l0 M3 w) g4 ^" {" `. w! @5 X( D伟大的艺术和伟大的科学都是借助想象,跳进与现实迥异的世界中去。4 ^0 h7 E( T1 `5 B
Great art and great science involve a leap of imagination into a world that is different from the present.
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. k7 N7 O7 e; Y7 d3 V事实上,艺术与科学的核心所在,便是超越我们目前所认识的现实而创造出一个新的现实。
/ ^7 A7 r- J/ T. n" h% n5 `& }* aIn fact, the whole point of art and science is to go beyond what we now consider real and create a new reality.
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4. Creative people tend to be both extroverted and introverted. / {$ d- Y5 y, Y( x) B

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) T9 I0 l% W( x2 Y4 h6 L0 Y我们一般都二者居其一,要么偏爱呆在人群之中,要么独坐一旁,冷眼看戏。; b" t9 n& V; S' B9 c
We're usually one or the other, either preferring to be in the thick of crowds or sitting on the sidelines and observing the passing show. 2 H& C$ ]* @; _* x9 p4 S  r* R
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: G& N) a/ f4 Q: l事实上,在目前的心理研究中,外向和内向被视为能区分彼此的最稳定的性格特点。2 M* O1 G6 U" W0 k8 d
In fact, in current psychological research, extroversion and introversion are considered to be the most stable personality traits that distinguish people from each other. + f, _0 j1 I$ d. C& Q
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7 @- q8 E( B- y6 J6 H0 z0 n5 k; I富有创意的个体似乎同时显示这两种特点。: g4 @! H  u5 I. T- q; ~
Creative individuals seem to exhibit both traits at the same time. 2 T2 @2 J0 W+ F+ X0 Q$ z* R

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5. Creative people are humble and proud at the same time.
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1 X& t4 q! i% Y/ [: \/ m7 C1 _这些个体站在巨人的肩膀上* F8 a$ `: K/ B# r: m
These individuals stand "on the shoulders of giants".
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他们尊重自己工作的领域,因而能意识到前人的大量贡献。6 s& ?* w8 z6 ~; n: A# U
Their respect for the area in which they work makes them aware of the long line of previous contributions to it.
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他们通常如此专注于未来的工程和当前的挑战,过往的成就,不论多么出色,都无法再引起他们太多的兴趣。# j$ ?* P- H4 c7 f/ R. B# v1 T+ t
And they're usually so focused on future projects and current challenges that past accomplishments, no matter how outstanding, are no longer very interesting to them. " N9 Z4 \9 j+ X  ]
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6. Creative people are both rebellious and conservative. 8 c( q3 |# A0 p- u8 T

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, M* T' a1 ?# f) a' I5 MBeing only traditional leaves an area unchanged; constantly taking chances without regard to tradition rarely leads to novelty.
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但冒险精神是绝对必要的。) Y' x9 f; n* v& T! `  o
But the willingness to take risks is absolutely necessary. / y; D" X7 i  r) A6 o
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. }7 }  r+ s# i6 LThe economist George Stigler is very emphatic in this regard, "I'd say one of the most common failures of able people is a lack of nerve.
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他们做事四平八稳。9 e7 E8 l# S. `1 h' S$ O: Y* K
They just play safe games.- b5 g' J2 p$ Z9 E

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要创新,你就不能太求稳,结果才可能有意思。/ C& `) P& Q+ R/ C
In innovation, you have to play a less safe game, if it's going to be interesting.  [9 W, K) o2 e+ I' P* q( t, h% N% e
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结果是否会顺利是无法预测的。2 I4 U: ?! D% M& N8 |
It's not predictable that it'll go well."
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7. Most creative people are very passionate about their work, yet they can be extremely objective about it as well.
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没有激情,我们很快就会对困难任务失去兴趣。0 j. u2 \) e5 a6 Z% @
Without the passion, we soon lose interest in a difficult task.
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但如果不够客观,我们的工作就难以出色,缺乏可信度。9 u6 `8 [4 Q' i& D5 l0 v
Yet without being objective about it, our work is not very good and lacks credibility.
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8. Creative people's openness and sensitivity often exposes them to suffering and pain, yet also to a great deal of enjoyment. ! h1 n8 w# R$ B3 }7 D8 Q
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5 t4 b6 `  m3 ]' ]1 DInventors have a low threshold of pain. 9 W8 a$ w) l% [& s* ]
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; O) C- Q% M. a, G: m身边的事物会让他们看不顺眼。6 l* x; O& G5 C/ j2 y% j) [- Z
Things bother them. 5 A& H9 {+ a( E$ D8 i: x1 }

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. }' d7 L/ F& x* u7 j) L设计拙劣的机器会令富有创意的工程师痛苦,而富有创意的作者看到蹩脚的文字同样也会感觉受伤。
+ w! P4 B3 E) LA badly designed machine causes pain to an inventive engineer, just as the creative writer is hurt when reading bad prose. $ z4 E, W& O/ J$ R0 q0 ]6 a
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Being alone at the forefront of a discipline also leaves you exposed and vulnerable.
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6 D, u" Y2 \8 r: g0 o卓越会招致批评,甚至往往是恶毒攻击。
) [2 \* I) \; T4 G/ A! J3 KEminence invites criticism and often vicious attacks. * T3 b4 J) \9 P  i8 C' U
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  w; Y# ~3 S* Y) n艺术家倾注多年心血终于完成一件雕塑作品,科学家皓首穷年提出一种理论,到头来若是无人问津,这种打击无疑是灾难性的。, ?" i- P6 X: u6 m7 B- P
When an artist has invested years in making a sculpture, or a scientist in developing a theory, it is devastating if nobody cares. 9 j, z* t+ m5 p3 p
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Perhaps the most difficult thing for creative individuals to bear is the sense of loss and emptiness they experience when, for some reason, they cannot work.
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% ]4 o& y; X% e2 d/ fThis is especially painful when a person feels his or her creativity drying out. : g& S8 a5 C" j' k3 T

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Yet when a person is working in the area of his or her expertise, worries and cares fall away, replaced by a sense of happiness.
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也许最重要的品质,在一切富有创意的人身上最常见的一种品质,就是能够享受创造过程本身。: I/ F; n9 D4 f- U% ^9 ^% p/ w7 V
Perhaps the most important quality, the one that is most consistently present in all creative individuals, is the ability to enjoy the process of creation for its own sake. ) O8 m$ z/ W* I( u$ W

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0 d& Q+ q; ~* t2 u! F没有这种品质,诗人将不再追求完美而写些商业性的喧嚣之作;经济学家将会去银行任职,收入至少会是大学里的两倍;物理学家也会停止基础研究而加入工业实验室,那里条件优越而且结果也容易预测。
7 S& \% h3 m5 J3 ]Without this trait, poets would give up striving for perfection and would write commercial jingles; economists would work for banks where they would earn at least twice as much as they do at universities; and physicists would stop doing basic research and join industrial laboratories where the conditions are better and the expectations more predictable. End
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The Creative Personality

## 1. Difficult Sentences
8 l, o' w# ~- a' I( `' i1. (Para. 1) They contain contradictory extremes; instead of being an “individual”, each of them is a “multitude”.0 X4 J$ ^+ {; O, y! T. v2 _6 X# r
Paraphrase the sentence.5 i" D, S. v2 b' D" P
(=Creative people have many different personalities. Instead of possessing the personality traits that are normally found only in different people, they possess these different traits all in themselves, as if each of them were made up of many individuals.)
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2. (Para. 3) When necessary, they can focus it like a laser beam; when not, creative types immediately recharge their batteries.) P; i. P/ ~* a5 M
Paraphrase the sentence.
& _( N  q- m4 n0 q5 o; K/ T(=Creative people have the extraordinary ability to concentrate their energy on their jobs if necessary; however, when such concentration is unnecessary, they will stop working and relax, refreshing themselves for future tasks.)
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+ s- S# d# M/ T( m* V3. (Para. 3) This is not a biorhythm inherited with their genes; it was learned by trial and error as a strategy for achieving their goals.
9 q4 L+ s; f3 x/ Q  k9 r& f" i( vTranslate the sentence into Chinese.
7 @6 ^& N" W6 G, ^2 N(=这不是得自遗传基因的生物节奏;而是为达到目标而通过反复尝试掌握的一种策略。)
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( d6 }- h! `4 B; g4. (Para. 4) As Howard Gardner reveals in his study of the major creative geniuses of the 20th century, a certain immaturity, both emotional and mental, can go hand in hand with deepest insights.
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2 ^7 ~' ^/ P# L; j0 vParaphrase this part of the sentence “…a certain immaturity, both emotional and mental, can go hand in hand with deepest insights.
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(=Creative people can be very intelligent and insightful; meanwhile they may be immature both emotionally and mentally in a certain way. That is to say, they may be very intelligent and yet at the same time be childish and naive sometimes)
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5. (Para. 8) …either preferring to be in the thick of crowds or sitting on the sidelines and observing the passing show.6 e1 s; r& D) J  M- {  `
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(=Creative people either choose to be in the company of many people or to stand outside the crowd and watch what others do.) O$ Q4 s7 V: L& V8 y0 F& v
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- f( `+ r! L, n$ g4 a: e6. (Para. 9) These individuals stand “on the shoulders of giants”.
0 d: K! G- A( Z/ v  [1 x+ LWhere does the phrase stand “on the shoulders of giants” come from?(插图stand on the shoulders of giants
6 G. G; i* s% U7 \/ t% d% i/ G(= It quotes from Newton’s words “If I have seen further, it is by standing on the shoulders of giants.”)
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7. (Para. 12) Inventors have a low threshold of pain.
% D% H- _+ _, |0 A5 n0 hWhat" ?' y: ^- \% a2 \: J5 R0 k
does a low threshold of pain mean?

9 K" m9 P) M; U' z6 g(=It means the inability to suffer a lot of pain.)
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8. (Para. 13) Eminence invites criticism and often vicious attacks.
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does invite mean here?
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(=It means “encourage something bad to happen, especially without intending to”.)
; G  L* B6 \( x: N3 e2. Translate the sentence into Chinese.
) G* v# \& a; E7 p- o4 j7 k(=卓越会招致批评,甚至往往是恶毒攻击。)5 `# |+ X' K& j0 o* B. V

0 V0 O+ `# o5 T" w- o9 v## 2. Words and Expressions1 [: g- j& t$ R8 [' X9 K: {
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(Para. 1) devote: v. use all or most of your time, effort, etc. in
2 v6 N2 Z; E( L# G5 Worder
8 Z) @+ I0 u, b( H* {8 _% ^to do sth. or help sb.
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He devoted his energies to writing films. (插图devote)
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She devoted herself to her business.
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(Para. 1) multitude: n. a very large number of people or things
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0 F6 {7 c& A" s6 ]4 U( \* ~I had never seen such a multitude of stars before.

3 N- n" i8 R% Q& U) a( n+ ~, ^" S7 @+ v, E+ O6 F5 b3 f  y9 r1 Q) r
There is a multitude of possible interpretations.
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' t2 {  j# X9 g3 U9 N9 J- K; t(=These systems are capable of performing a multitude of different tasks.)
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3. (Para. 2) integrate: v. if two or more things integrate, or if you integrate them, they combine or work together in a way that makes sth. more effective 8 _2 }% C: G3 V  w* e! \! z  I! K

, n2 a( Z1 {) y: p# j7 i% ~3 nColorful illustrations are integrated into the text.
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Many schools are now integrating computer science into the curriculum.

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8 h: N6 L) {2 t' V: w0 e- J4. (Para. 3) external: adj. relating to the outside of sth. or of a person’s body; relating to your environment or situation, rather than to your own qualities, ideas, etc.0 Y5 D3 @) `; x: u3 l0 T/ V: a
They did it in response to external pressures.& }2 B; B* \  Q; J- y- i# t
This medicine is for external use only. (插图external)+ C9 X# u$ P8 b: Z7 i% F4 a/ k/ o
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(=External causes become operative through internal causes.)
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Collocations : external cause
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: L5 j6 w( k& g6 I# f" m* j* Aexternal force- d  p* B: L' z0 F

" x% P1 ~- z3 r) \8 }0 F, _& {/ `external affairs
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(Para. 3) recharge one’s batteries: (informal) rest or relax in order to get back your energy
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$ }1 s7 |; \( [I’m going to spend a week in the mountains to recharge my batteries.
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3 R1 _4 u( N7 Z2 ~7 ~, e: R! p6. (Para. 3) trial: n. a process of testing to find out whether sth. works effectively and is safe
& R8 m) L5 G/ s3 rThe new drug is undergoing clinical trials.5 ^6 B2 p3 `7 U
The security system will be reviewed after a three-month trial period.
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. n1 U* K" _5 ?( l(Directions:) Choose the proper meanings for the italicized parts in the following sentences. (点击手形按钮以后出现答案)
" M; m' t8 [4 U- I1 s$ S1. I learned most of what I know about gardening through trial and error./ V0 ?% l* l3 u
2. My brothers and I were always a real trial to my parents.
1 t5 b9 ~, _  \- ^3. They let me have the computer on trial for thirty days.
! t0 Y& d& C5 i" V* {/ [4. The idea of trial marriage is nothing new.
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something or someone that is difficult to deal with, and that is worrying or annoying
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b. testing many different methods of doing something in order to find the best& j! j0 W# ~, @, `' k* _
c. when two people live together without being married, to see if they will be suitable partners3 [2 X9 a, ~! i( S: K
d. a short period during which you use or do something to find out whether they are satisfactory for a particular purpose$ u% a9 e' x4 Y  a
(Key: 1-b, 2-a, 3-d, 4~c)
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0 q1 d. }$ m* R1 f  u* t1 t& _7. (Para. 4) (go) hand in hand: if two things go hand in hand, they are closely connected; 7 X. g* f: j! F) w( j2 P$ R
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: p9 F  Z) O5 {8 M7 P8 ^% ^Wealth and power go hand in hand in most societies.# _) Y: a* [1 ?, x
They say that genius often goes hand in hand with madness. (插图hand in hand)7 _- |/ ]+ ]% a4 Y, B

4 E3 M4 y* l& }+ s! w7 F+ M8. (Para. 4) insight: n. a sudden clear understanding of sth. or part of sth., especially a complicated situation or idea' E/ R9 Z) c' v2 b1 `
The article gives us a real insight into the causes of the present economic crisis. 5 p2 [+ e* N3 C* d& q4 i
The research provides new insights into the way we process language.
  X% R' j4 K, G5 d3 z. w. T他的演讲使我们对教育问题有了深入的了解。
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8 p% x. _) o3 s% W# J& ^( t(=His speech gave us an insight into the problems of education.)

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9. (Para. 5) correlate: v. if two or more facts, ideas, etc. correlate or if you correlate them, they are closely connected to each other or one causes the other/ o3 G6 S" L% b9 @# p
Smoking and lung cancer are closely correlated.; P! _' n/ z1 H, |- C& Y7 G1 [
Poverty and poor housing correlate with a shorter life expectancy.
5 t1 g3 z- x+ ^# P: x0 {7 h9 Z2 j' dThey are trying to find out if these behavior patterns correlate with particular changes in diet.
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- m1 w# E  @, _% A5 E10. (Para. 5) superior: adj.
* g: o% {$ z" M4 ~% [' O3 J1) of very good quality# f/ }, h: S9 g
This handbag is made of superior leather. (插图superior)
0 t, U# C# I1 W$ O5 r2 z2) better, more powerful, more effective, etc. than a similar person or thing, especially one that you are competing against
8 y* [7 ~& i5 ~这家西餐馆比我们上星期去的那一家好。' {5 h$ H/ X  d. I  o) J
(=This western restaurant is superior to the one we went to last week.)
- W( k5 y7 l. y3 v# iPattern: ( R" {/ H) O) `, E3 Z) d
superior to. m2 \; A% a2 o! f& }* i  \, I% Y/ d
NB: Antonym: inferior
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+ K. C, ?8 M4 `7 d/ s0 Y- y  }5 }3 w2 w11. (Para. 7) alternate: v. if two things alternate, or if you alternate them, they happen one after the other in a repeated pattern7 s) c0 S* t+ h# ]. O6 d. P1 B9 y/ q2 T
Work alternated with sleep. (插图alternate)4 ^; q0 Q' I6 L8 {

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(=His moods alternated between happiness and gloom.)
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12. (Para. 8) distinguish: v. recognize and understand the difference between two or more things or people
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" W: [, o3 k2 E# g( J8 j# i+ YSmall children can’t distinguish between right and wrong.
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你能区分出正在演奏的各种不同的乐器吗?2 S( J" ^! m5 a& u

4 j  K1 z, C- b2 S" h(=Can you distinguish the different musical instruments being played now?)

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0 b# m# r9 I1 ~3 }  s# Rdistinguish, discriminate

: g4 G- U3 X. d$ L2 {* c: |! |( V( e. A4 C1 C: J8 a3 L

! D7 Y% v! a& M- V2 Q; n; edistinguish普通用词,指有能力辨别或实际观察到的区别,强调辨别所需的技巧。
. X) N  o, ~7 ?' h( E& M- g' [7 kdiscriminate语气强,指从非常相似的事物中辨出差异,尤其强调把好坏区分开来。' C& n8 [4 A5 B5 f* q6 [+ W

1 u* G2 t$ a+ a(Directions:)
- V% ]/ r5 g! F3 [1 E8 {Fill in the blanks with the two words above. Change the form where necessary.
+ ^. x+ @" g( z2 Y
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Can you ______

- C' g2 e" w( [% L+ |$ k/ Mgood books from bad ones?

; W3 J! m" v. q6 M4 A(=discriminate)
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I can ______ my roommates by their footsteps. (=distinguish)
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The twins are so alike it’s difficult to ______ one from the other. (=distinguish)( H& f, l' H0 Q6 ], b) e

# Z, v# E' q6 I6 v2 {, b% @; r13. (Para. 10) regard: n. (formal) attention or consideration that is shown towards sb. or sth.; d! K1 I' i' B$ L6 v
She has no regard for other people’s feelings. : q1 m7 z1 O/ Y  Y! O
The present administration has demonstrated little regard for environmental issues. (插图regard): K# D; p1 e8 f! F  `2 H* H! c- h
* H! ?, G4 X2 Y' N! R6 fas regards
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5 {9 e% b  \4 B0 Hwith regard to sth. 3 m' S) c, D# E
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" |  {) m/ ~7 g2 g) Ein this / that regard
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+ x9 z& i, d8 e4 g  n$ L14. (Para. 10) nerve: n. courage and confidence in a dangerous, difficult, or frightening situation$ k6 S2 J8 U4 U+ o7 r" }
It must have taken a lot of nerve to risk so much money on one product. 0 i( P9 ?$ N7 z: ]' R$ i2 x
Collocations :
7 u. r, S. a$ Q+ @have the nerve to do sth.# C$ i- j' F  o1 o8 j0 ~3 c1 o

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lose one’s nerve# ]7 X5 n  d7 ?9 z6 |

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$ E- C# S# i( e/ v) ?! sCF: nerve, bravery, & courage
: y. `. f& F  o这些名词都可表示“勇气、胆量”之意。) c$ t. \+ y. {$ B+ `% `
nerve强调指在面临危险或在困难的情况下具有冷静、清醒的头脑和坚定无畏的勇气。例如:) B8 L. Q" [& T9 P$ w
  M7 i8 A  `# i. C. ?+ Xcourage普通用词。指面对危险或困难时的勇气和敢于奋斗的进取心。
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15. (Para. 10) innovation: n. the introduction of new ideas or methods" [1 O+ r  K" U: X) v2 j. c( S8 ]% Y
We must encourage innovation if the company is to remain competitive.
) N( B5 K2 H" S. Q2 _, A2 W& RThe innovation of air travel during this century has made the world seem smaller. (插图innovation)! p( B) k1 P2 N) C/ I$ h) [
(声音文件innovation)& @1 w, S  S# ?1 A& h
(=Many people feel bewildered by the speed of technological innovation.)
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( C" i+ M" Z- z% @16. (Para. 11) credibility: n. the quality of deserving to be believed and trusted, U# z; s) u2 `/ U  ~, m% v# ~
There are serious questions about the credibility of these reports./ C) x  x) i0 ]( v9 _5 K
The predictions of economic recovery have lost all credibility.
& r: L7 P4 z" ^' C9 c+ |& t丑闻损害了他作为领导的威信。
9 r  e: N( p) M6 c" F(=The scandal has damaged his credibility as a leader.)6 b0 p' A+ _) }3 A+ _4 B  y

$ J6 n2 ^* {: U- {( G0 `17. (Para. 12) expose: v. put sb. in a situation where they are not protected from something dangerous or unpleasant. T1 w& X9 M  r6 ^5 K5 E
The report revealed that workers had been exposed to high levels of radiation." `( Q2 l& p( E
As a nurse in the war she was exposed to many dangers. : C- z  {  Y* s3 N' J( O3 z
(声音文件expose); [; `1 I3 h6 R! h: t2 V
(=They consider it almost a crime to expose children to violence and sex on TV.)0 u# L% y- J' J7 Y2 e

: o* F2 J9 ?3 C* I18. (Para. 12) threshold n. $ v3 y% V/ O& s: e3 [' w
the level at which sth. starts to happen or have an effect

! i; Q) Q; Y) _9 w: E6 F1 F* @She has a very low threshold of pain.
: ?  B3 V! h3 {Eighty percent of the vote was the threshold for approval of the plan.
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( r' Q# s* u4 [. K. @* _/ j- l7 c19. (Para. 13) be at / in / to the forefront (of sth.): be in a leading position in an important activity that is trying to achieve sth. or develop new ideas6 N. z. N  y: P7 N' @& E
The company has always been at the forefront of science and technology.
6 k8 g( n% a! [- s. uPrison conditions have been pushed to the forefront of public debate. ; I% L' H  l& f  i+ u- y- h
She has been at the forefront of the struggle for women’s rights.
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20. (Para. 13) vicious: adj.
7 H, t8 [! r# r* ^very unkind in a way that is intended to hurt sb.’s feelings or make their character seem bad

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He gave the dog a vicious blow with his stick.

' P4 v% v# L3 x, T2 hShe was shocked by the vicious tone in his voice.) _. |- H7 F* C$ Y* M( O
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21. (Para. 13) devastating: adj. badly damaging or destroying sth.; M' C* c( Z; |5 C7 U

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Acid rain has a devastating effect on the forest.

; p7 b, h+ J& n4 n; ]3 zThe oil spill had devastating consequences for wildlife. (插图devastating 2); e2 p- F8 Q- z7 o( _$ _
(声音文件devastating )" g& |/ Y8 Q1 u4 Q
(=It will be a devastating blow for the town if the factory closes.)
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22. (Para. 15) expertise: n. special skills or knowledge in a particular subject that you learn by experience or training
& k. Y6 w( c5 N8 F: F4 VWhat he brings to the company is financial expertise.
0 Q! ^) O8 y+ O1 y$ p2 P# yHis business expertise will be of great help to us.
1 B" c4 x& H. {8 V: Y/ W(声音文件expertise)
! t: c' e. p- q) e2 n4 L, q! X) ](=She displayed considerable expertise in keeping the horse under control.)7 R1 Z( A0 n1 Z8 P6 b" p
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23. (Para. 15) for the sake of sb. / sth., for sb.’s / sth.’s sake: in order to help, improve, or please sb. or sth.
9 q7 E  ~) @) tHe moved to the seaside for the sake of his health. (插图for the sake of)
9 w+ T7 W" j& }! i8 I, `: n7 o8 oI hope he’s told the truth for his own sake.
" @( o1 E% u% q9 L1 H" L' t我现在不是为了说话而说话,我要说的事很重要!; _: T3 E8 A# z; d
(=I’m not talking just for talking’s sake; this is important!)
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% {8 _& R4 u) M' E! Z( m* s24. (Para. 15) strive: v. make a great effort to achieve sth.6 |0 e+ m4 b5 M! I+ U" V: m3 x: Y* F
We must continue to strive for greater efficiency.2 X3 c$ `! S3 F
Patterns: , u& r) `- }9 w
strive to do sth.0 S8 e- k( _# T! V0 z
strive for / after
6 D8 F2 }2 P- m( S. r6 c  u1 K+ P" \7 }7 \
. `9 j: Q6 M6 g, Sstrive, attempt, try & endeavor

8 q2 W( A. H5 F3 F& w' ]1 t; `' j7 N* r
- {& z/ t  @; v) C
striveendeavor一样,表示付出巨大努力,但strive强调过程的劳累与紧张,而不强调努力的结果。例如( h: }( E  r& R
attempt较正式用词,强调已经开始,且希望完成,但不一定能达到预期的结果。3 O! P8 A  L5 Q9 F% ~* x$ y- E
try普通用词,可与attempt换用,但强调努力或尝试,后跟不定式表示努力或争取;后跟动名词表示尝试。例如:) X4 v# f8 ]* b( A7 X5 J2 a" D4 A
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